CNA: Nursing Assistant Certification

Master the problem-solving, communication, and interpersonal skills needed to succeed as a nursing assistant with CNA: Nursing Assistant Certification. This comprehensive guide is written in easy-to-understand language and focuses on the importance of safety, professionalism, effective communication, legal and ethical issues, and real-world situations you’ll encounter on the job. This textbook offers content on emerging healthcare trends, bariatric considerations, end-of-life care, and much more.

Learn from author and registered nurse Carrie L. Engelbright what it takes to be a nursing assistant and achieve caregiver excellence.

  • Role and Scope of Practice includes the skills, responsibilities, and actions permitted and expected of a nursing assistant.
  • Skills are divided into when, why, and what statements, followed by “starting up” and “finishing up” steps to prepare you for your role as a nursing assistant.
  • Get Up and Think! encourages you to solve real-world situations that you’ll encounter on the job.
  • Learning Objectives help you review key concepts, guide your study, and prepare for your state certification exam.
  • Personas are applied to learning objectives throughout each chapter to assist with critical thinking in real-world nursing assistant scenarios.
  • Lessons apply to long-term, acute, and subacute care settings.
  • Workbook corresponds with each chapter and supports learning with a range of exercises. Sold separately.
  • New Videos provide a unique classroom experience and reiterate the roles and responsibilities of a nursing assistant.

Table of Contents

  • A Note to Nursing Assistant Instructors xxiii
  • A Note to the Students xxv
  • Visual Walkthrough xxvi
  • Acknowledgements xxxiii
  • About the Author xxxv
  • Chapter 1: The History of Healthcare in the United States 1
    • 1.1 A Brief History of Healthcare in the United States 2
    • 1.2 The Beginning of Modern Healthcare 3
      • The Modernization of Medicine 4
    • 1.3 The Cost of Healthcare 5
    • 1.4 Healthcare Today 6
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 7
    • Get Up and Think! 8
    • Reflect on This! 8
    • Let’s Review! 8
    • Multiple Choice Questions 8
    • References 9
  • Chapter 2: Responding to Emerging Trends in Healthcare 10
    • 2.1 Who Is Your Client 11
    • 2.2 Consumerism in America 11
    • 2.3 Home Healthcare Versus Facility Care 12
    • 2.4 Alternative Therapies 13
    • 2.5 Why the Nursing Assistant Needs to Know These Trends 14
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 16
    • Get Up and Think! 16
    • Reflect on This! 17
    • Let’s Review! 17
    • Multiple Choice Questions 17
    • References 18
  • Chapter 3: Healthcare Settings and Governance 19
    • 3.1–3.4 Work Settings for the Nursing Assistant 20
      • Acute Care Settings 20
      • Subacute or Rehabilitation Facility 22
      • Long-Term Care 22
      • Assisted-Living Communities 23
      • Home Healthcare 25
      • Hospice Services 26
      • Respite Services 26
    • 3.5 Advanced Training and Opportunities 27
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 28
    • Get Up and Think! 28
    • Reflect on This! 29
    • Let’s Review! 29
    • Multiple Choice Questions 29
  • Chapter 4: The Nursing Assistant Role and Scope of Practice 31
    • 4.1 Members of the Healthcare Team 32
    • 4.2 Scope of Practice for the Nursing Assistant 33
    • 4.3 Chain of Command 34
    • 4.4 Delegated Tasks 35
    • 4.5 Teaching Versus Reinforcing 37
    • 4.6 Time Management and Organization 37
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 38
    • Get Up and Think! 38
    • Reflect on This! 39
    • Let’s Review! 39
    • Multiple Choice Questions 39
    • Reference 40
  • Chapter 5: Communication 41
    • Communication in Healthcare 42
    • 5.1 Causes of Medical Errors 42
    • 5.2 Subjective Versus Objective Data 43
    • 5.3 Oral Reporting 45
    • 5.4 Written Documentation and the Nursing Assistant 46
    • 5.5 Verbal Versus Nonverbal Communication 49
      • Verbal Communication 49
      • Nonverbal Communication 50
    • 5.6 Therapeutic Communication 51
    • 5.7 Confrontational Situations 52
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 53
    • Get Up and Think! 54
    • Reflect on This! 54
    • Let’s Review! 54
    • Multiple Choice Questions 55
    • Reference 55
  • Chapter 6: Professionalism in Healthcare 56
    • 6.1 Education and Certification 57
      • Nurse Aide Registry 57
      • Continuing Education 57
    • 6.2 Job Searching 58
      • Applications 58
      • Resume 60
    • 6.3 Interviewing 62
    • 6.4 Accepting and Resigning From a Position 63
    • 6.5 Acting Like a Professional 64
      • Dependability 64
      • Promptness 64
      • Customer Service 64
      • Flexibility 64
      • Hygiene 65
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 66
    • Get Up and Think! 66
    • Reflect on This! 67
    • Let’s Review! 67
    • Multiple Choice Questions 67
  • Chapter 7: Legal and Ethical Issues 69
    • 7.1 Client Rights 70
      • Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) 70
      • Informed Consent 71
    • 7.2 Client Responsibilities 72
    • 7.3 Employee Rights 72
    • 7.4 Employee Responsibilities 73
      • Following the Care Plan 73
      • Mandatory Reporting 74
    • 7.5 Laws 75
      • Invasion of Privacy 75
      • Misappropriation of Funds 76
      • Negligence 76
      • Abandonment 76
      • False Imprisonment 76
      • Neglect 77
      • Assault and Battery 77
      • Abuse 78
    • 7.6 Cultural Awareness 78
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 79
    • Get Up and Think! 80
    • Reflect on This! 80
    • Let’s Review! 80
    • Multiple Choice Questions 81
  • Chapter 8: Body Structures and Functioning Processes 82
    • 8.1 Basic Structures 83
    • 8.2 Tissue Types 83
    • 8.3 Body Systems 83
      • Integumentary System 83
      • Musculoskeletal System 85
      • Respiratory System 87
      • Cardiovascular System 89
      • Nervous System 91
      • Sensory Organs 92
      • Endocrine System 95
      • Digestive System 98
      • Urinary System 100
      • Reproductive System 101
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 104
    • Get Up and Think! 105
    • Reflect on This! 105
    • Let’s Review! 105
    • Multiple Choice Questions 106
  • Chapter 9: Common Diseases and Disorders 107
    • 9.1 Understanding Disease Processes 108
    • 9.2 Risk Factors 108
    • 9.3 Emergency Medical Services 108
    • 9.4 Common Diseases and Disorders 109
      • Integumentary System 109
      • Musculoskeletal System 111
      • Respiratory System 113
      • Cardiovascular System 115
      • Nervous System 118
      • Sensory Organs 122
      • Endocrine System 123
      • Digestive System 127
      • Urinary System 130
      • Reproductive System 133
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 134
    • Get Up and Think! 134
    • Reflect on This! 135
    • Let’s Review! 135
    • Multiple Choice Questions 135
    • References 136
  • Chapter 10: Infection Control Practices 137
    • Introduction 138
    • 10.1 The Importance of Hand Washing 138
      • Germ Theory 138
      • Global Society and Spread of Disease 139
    • 10.2 Chain of Infection 139
    • 10.3 Primary Prevention 140
    • 10.4 Body Defense Mechanisms 141
    • 10.5 Hand Hygiene 143
    • 10.6 Standard Precautions 146
      • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 147
    • 10.7 Specialty Precautions 149
      • Airborne Precautions 149
      • Droplet Precautions 149
      • Contact Precautions 150
      • Transporting a Client to and From an Isolation Room 150
      • Blood Spill Kits 151
      • Double-Bagging Technique 151
    • 10.8 Drug-Resistant Infections 151
      • MRSA Infection 151
      • VRE 152
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 153
    • Get Up and Think! 154
    • Reflect on This! 154
    • Let’s Review! 154
    • Multiple Choice Questions 155
    • Skills 155
    • References 161
  • Chapter 11: Body Mechanics and Workplace Safety 163
    • Introduction 164
    • 11.1 Exposure to Blood-Borne Pathogens and Chemicals 164
    • 11.2 Latex Allergies 166
    • 11.3 Injury Prevention 167
      • Ergonomics 167
      • Moving Clients 168
      • Lifestyle Choices to Prevent Back Injuries 169
      • Slips, Trips, and Falls 170
    • 11.4 Fire Safety 170
    • 11.5 Natural Disasters 172
    • 11.6 Bomb Threats 173
    • 11.7 Workplace Violence 173
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 175
    • Get Up and Think! 176
    • Reflect on This! 176
    • Let’s Review! 176
    • Multiple Choice Questions 177
  • Chapter 12: Reducing Client Injury and Falls 178
    • Introduction 179
    • 12.1 Why Falls and Immobility Are Dangerous 179
    • 12.2 Risk Factors for Falling 180
    • 12.3 Care During a Fall 181
    • 12.4 Care After a Fall 181
    • 12.5 How to Prevent Fall Injuries 183
    • 12.6 Alarm Systems 184
    • 12.7 Other Strategies 185
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 186
    • Get Up and Think! 187
    • Reflect on This! 187
    • Let’s Review! 187
    • Multiple Choice Questions 188
    • Skills 188
  • Chapter 13: Restraints and Restraint Alternatives 190
    • 13.1 Restraints 191
    • 13.2 Working With Restraints 191
    • 13.3 Types of Restraints 192
    • 13.4 Risks of Using Restraints 193
    • 13.5 Instances When Restraints Are Allowed 194
    • 13.6 Side Rails 195
    • 13.7 Restraint Alternatives 195
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 197
    • Get Up and Think! 197
    • Reflect on This! 198
    • Let’s Review! 198
    • Multiple Choice Questions 198
    • Reference 199
    • Skill 199
  • Chapter 14: Basic First Aid Measures 200
    • Introduction 201
    • 14.1 Airway Obstruction 201
    • 14.2 Cardiac Arrest 202
    • 14.3 Syncope 203
    • 14.4 Seizures 204
    • 14.5 Hemorrhage 205
    • 14.6 Shock 206
    • 14.7 Burns 207
    • 14.8 Poisoning 208
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 209
    • Get Up and Think! 210
    • Reflect on This! 210
    • Let’s Review! 210
    • Multiple Choice Questions 211
    • Skills 211
  • Chapter 15: Stress Reduction and Management Techniques 216
    • 15.1 Why Is Healthcare So Stressful 217
    • 15.2 Ways to Prevent Stress From Taking Charge 218
    • 15.3 Time-Management Techniques to Reduce Stress While at Work 219
    • 15.4 Preventing Stress and Promoting Job Satisfaction 219
      • Good General Health 220
      • Yoga 220
      • Meditation 220
      • Pet Therapy 221
      • Humor 222
      • Journaling 222
      • Visualization Techniques 222
      • Breathing Exercises 223
    • 15.5 Client Stressors 223
      • Pain 223
      • Illness 224
      • Sleep Deprivation 224
      • Anxiety and Depression 224
      • Grief 225
      • Coach Your Clients 225
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 225
    • Get Up and Think! 226
    • Reflect on This! 226
    • Let’s Review! 226
    • Multiple Choice Questions 227
    • Skills 227
  • Chapter 16: Holistic Care of Clients 229
    • 16.1 Holistic Care 230
    • 16.2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 230
      • Human Needs 230
      • Application of Maslow’s Hierarchy to Caregiving 231
    • 16.3 Growth and Development 233
    • 16.4 Quality of Life 234
    • 16.5 Meeting the Needs of Loved Ones 239
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 239
    • Get Up and Think! 240
    • Reflect on This! 240
    • Let’s Review! 241
    • Multiple Choice Questions 241
  • Chapter 17: Client Room Environment 242
    • Introduction 243
    • 17.1 Safety 243
    • 17.2 The Physical Environment 244
    • 17.3 Individual Room Requirements 245
    • 17.4 Noise and Odor Control 246
      • Noise Control 246
      • Odor Control and Cleanliness 247
    • 17.5 Transfers and Discharges 248
    • 17.6 Current Trends 249
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 250
    • Get Up and Think! 251
    • Reflect on This! 251
    • Let’s Review! 251
    • Multiple Choice Questions 252
    • Reference 252
  • Chapter 18: Preventing Skin Breakdown 253
    • 18.1 The Importance of Healthy Skin 254
    • 18.2 Types of Skin Breakdown 254
      • Rashes 254
      • Friction and Shearing 255
      • Pressure Injuries 255
    • 18.3 Stages of Pressure Injuries 256
    • 18.4 Risk Factors for Developing Pressure Injuries 258
    • 18.5 Interventions for Preventing Skin Breakdown 260
      • Inspection and Cleanliness 260
      • Positioning and Turning 260
      • Pressure-Relieving Devices 261
      • Positioning Devices 262
      • Incontinence Care 262
      • Nutrition and Hydration 263
      • Reducing the Microclimate 264
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 264
    • Get Up and Think! 265
    • Reflect on This! 265
    • Let’s Review! 265
    • Multiple Choice Questions 266
    • Reference 266
  • Chapter 19: Bedmaking 267
    • Introduction 268
    • 19.1 Linens 268
    • 19.2 Infection Control 270
    • 19.3 Body Mechanics 271
    • 19.4 The Closed Versus Open Bed 272
    • 19.5 Making the Unoccupied and Occupied Bed 273
      • Unoccupied Bed 273
      • Occupied Bed 273
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 275
    • Get Up and Think! 276
    • Reflect on This! 276
    • Let’s Review! 276
    • Multiple Choice Questions 277
    • Skills 277
  • Chapter 20: Positioning Clients 282
    • Introduction 283
    • 20.1 Frequency of Repositioning Clients 283
    • 20.2 Basic Positions for Clients in Bed 283
    • 20.3 Position to Relieve Pressure Injuries 284
      • Supine 284
      • Fowler’s Position 285
      • Prone Position 286
      • Side-Lying Position 287
      • Sims’s Position 287
      • Tripod Position 288
    • 20.4 Wheelchair Positioning 288
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 289
    • Get Up and Think! 290
    • Reflect on This! 290
    • Let’s Review! 290
    • Multiple Choice Questions 291
    • Skills 291
    • References 294
  • Chapter 21: Moving, Transferring, and Transporting Clients 295
    • Introduction 296
    • 21.1 Moving a Client in Bed 296
    • 21.2 Preventing Friction and Shearing Injuries 297
    • 21.3 Log Rolling a Client 298
    • 21.4 Moving a Client From Bed to Stretcher 298
    • 21.5 Transferring the Client Using a One- and a Two-Assist Transfer 299
      • Dangling 299
      • Footwear 299
      • Gait Belt 299
      • One- and Two-Assist Transfers 300
      • Mechanical Devices Used for Transfers 302
    • 21.6 Transferring a Bariatric Client 304
    • 21.7 Transporting a Client in a Wheelchair 305
    • Summary of Learning Objective 306
    • Get Up and Think! 307
    • Reflect on This! 307
    • Let’s Review! 308
    • Multiple Choice Questions 308
    • Skills 309
    • References 321
  • Chapter 22: Ambulation and Exercises for Clients 322
    • Introduction 323
    • 22.1 Why We Move 323
      • Self-Esteem 323
      • Effects on the Digestive System 323
      • Effects on the Cardiovascular System 323
      • Effects on the Integumentary System 324
      • Effects on the Musculoskeletal System 324
    • 22.2 Levels of Assistance 324
    • 22.3 Safety Measures Used During Ambulation 325
    • 22.4 Assistive Devices for Ambulation 327
    • 22.5 Range-of-Motion Exercises 328
    • 22.6 Soothing Sore Muscles 329
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 331
    • Get Up and Think! 332
    • Reflect on This! 332
    • Let’s Review! 332
    • Multiple Choice Questions 333
    • Skills 333
  • Chapter 23: Rehabilitation and Restorative Care 338
    • 23.1 Therapy Services Overview 339
    • 23.2 Rehabilitation Therapy 339
      • Physical Therapy 339
      • Occupational Therapy 340
      • Speech Therapy 341
    • 23.3 Activities Therapy 342
    • 23.4 Restorative Care 343
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 345
    • Get Up and Think! 345
    • Reflect on This! 345
    • Let’s Review! 346
    • Multiple Choice Questions 346
  • Chapter 24: Adaptive Equipment and Supportive Devices 347
    • Introduction 348
    • 24.1 The Client With a Prosthesis 348
      • Prosthesis Overview 348
      • Types of Prostheses 349
      • Care Measures 350
    • 24.2 The Client With an Orthosis 350
      • Orthosis Overview 350
      • Care Measures 351
    • 24.3 Adaptive Tools Used at Meal Times 351
    • 24.4 Adaptive Tools for Grooming and Other ADLs 352
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 354
    • Get Up and Think! 354
    • Reflect on This! 354
    • Let’s Review! 355
    • Multiple Choice Questions 355
  • Chapter 25: Vital Signs 356
    • 25.1 Introduction 357
    • 25.2 When Vital Signs Are Taken 357
    • 25.3 Infection Control 358
    • 25.4 Accurately Measuring Vital Signs 358
      • Temperature 358
      • Pulse 360
      • Respiration 361
      • Pulse Oximetry 362
      • Blood Pressure 363
      • Height 365
      • Weight 365
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 367
    • Get Up and Think! 368
    • Reflect on This! 368
    • Let’s Review! 368
    • Multiple Choice Questions 369
    • Skills 369
    • References 379
  • Chapter 26: Bathing 380
    • Introduction 381
    • 26.1 Routine Bathing 381
    • 26.2 Distressed Bathing 382
      • Alternatives to Tub Bathing and Showering 383
      • Easing Distressed Bathing 383
    • 26.3 Rinseless Systems 383
    • 26.4 Peri-Care 384
    • 26.5 Bed Baths 388
      • Partial Bed Bath 388
      • Complete Bed Bath 389
    • 26.6 Shower and Tub Baths 390
      • Shower 390
      • Whirlpool Tub Bath 392
      • Hair Care 392
    • 26.7 Responsibilities on Bath Day 393
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 394
    • Get Up and Think! 394
    • Reflect on This! 395
    • Let’s Review! 395
    • Multiple Choice Questions 395
    • Skills 396
    • Reference 410
  • Chapter 27: Grooming 411
    • 27.1 Promoting Independence 412
    • 27.2 Dressing 412
      • Dressing a Client With One-Sided Weakness 413
    • 27.3 Hair 413
    • 27.4 Vision and Hearing 414
      • Glasses and Contacts 414
      • Hearing Aids 415
    • 27.5 Shaving 416
    • 27.6 Oral Care 417
    • 27.7 Nail and Foot Care 420
      • Nail Care 420
      • Foot Care 421
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 423
    • Get Up and Think! 423
    • Reflect on This! 424
    • Let’s Review! 424
    • Multiple Choice Questions 424
    • Skills 425
  • Chapter 28: Nutrition 438
    • Introduction 439
    • 28.1 MyPlate 439
    • 28.2 Nutrients Essential for Life 439
      • Calories 439
      • Carbohydrates 440
      • Proteins 441
      • Fats 441
      • Vitamins and Minerals 441
    • 28.3 Water and Fluid Needs 443
    • 28.4 Food Groups 444
      • Grains 444
      • Fruits 444
      • Vegetables 445
      • Dairy Products 445
      • Protein 446
    • 28.5 Types of Diets 446
      • Specialty Diets 446
      • Mechanically Altered Diets and Fluids 449
      • Thickened Fluids 449
      • Diets for the Postsurgical Client 450
      • Mechanical Feeding 451
    • 28.6 Problems With Digestion 451
      • Nausea, Vomiting, and Diarrhea 451
      • Malnutrition and Overeating 452
    • 28.7 Feeding Dependent Clients 453
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 455
    • Get Up and Think! 456
    • Reflect on This! 456
    • Let’s Review! 456
    • Multiple Choice Questions 457
    • Skill 457
    • References 458
  • Chapter 29: Elimination 459
    • Introduction 486
    • 29.1 Urinary Elimination via Catheter 460
      • Types of Catheters 460
      • The Nursing Assistant’s Role in Care of the Client With a Catheter 461
      • Cleaning the Catheter 462
      • Changing the Collection Bag to a Leg Bag 462
      • Positioning the Client With a Collection Bag 463
      • Protecting the Privacy of the Client Who Uses a Catheter 463
      • Emptying the Collection or Leg Bag 463
      • Cleaning Collection and Leg Bags 463
    • 29.2 Urostomy 464
    • 29.3 Incontinence 464
      • Care of the Client Who Is Incontinent 464
      • Types of Incontinence Products 465
    • 29.4 Dialysis 465
      • Hemodialysis 466
      • Peritoneal Dialysis 466
      • Care of the Client Who Is on Dialysis 466
    • 29.5 Bowel Elimination 467
    • 29.6 Ostomies 468
    • 29.7 Digestive Tract Bleeding 469
    • 29.8 Devices Used for Elimination 470
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 472
    • Get Up and Think! 473
    • Reflect on This! 473
    • Let’s Review! 473
    • Multiple Choice Questions 474
    • Skills 474
  • Chapter 30: Specimen Collection 485
    • Introduction 486
    • 30.1 Basic Principles of Collection and Transport 486
    • 30.2 Urine Specimens 487
    • 30.3 Straining for Kidney Stones 488
    • 30.4 Fecal Specimens 488
    • 30.5 Occult Blood 489
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 490
    • Get Up and Think! 490
    • Reflect on This! 491
    • Let’s Review! 491
    • Multiple Choice Questions 491
    • Skills 492
  • Chapter 31: Oxygen Therapy and Respiratory Interventions 497
    • 31.1 Why Supplemental Oxygen Is Needed 498
    • 31.2 The Nursing Assistant’s Role in Oxygen Therapy 498
    • 31.3 Delivery Routes 499
    • 31.4 Delivery Systems 500
    • 31.5 Interventions to Ease Anxiety Related to Breathing Difficulties 502
    • 31.6 Interventions to Aid Lung Function 502
      • Coughing and Deep Breathing Exercises 502
      • Incentive Spirometry 502
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 504
    • Get Up and Think! 504
    • Reflect on This! 505
    • Let’s Review! 505
    • Multiple Choice Questions 505
    • Skills 506
  • Chapter 32: Care for the Medical and Surgical Client 510
    • Introduction 511
    • 32.1 The Medical Client 511
    • 32.2 The Postsurgical Client 511
    • 32.3 Diet for the Postsurgical Client 512
    • 32.4 Activity for the Postsurgical Client 512
    • 32.5 Weight-Bearing Status 513
    • 32.6 Respiratory Complications 514
    • 32.7 Cardiac Complications 514
    • 32.8 Intravenous Therapy 515
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 516
    • Get Up and Think! 517
    • Reflect on This! 517
    • Let’s Review! 517
    • Multiple Choice Questions 517
    • Skills 518
  • Chapter 33: Care for the Client With Communication Disorders 521
    • Introduction 522
    • 33.1 Hearing-Impaired Clients 522
    • 33.2 Speech-Impaired Clients 523
    • 33.3 Emotional Communication Deficits 524
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 525
    • Get Up and Think! 525
    • Reflect on This! 525
    • Let’s Review! 526
    • Multiple Choice Questions 526
  • Chapter 34: Care for the Client With Cancer 527
    • Introduction 528
    • 34.1 What Is Cancer 528
    • 34.2 What Causes Cancer 529
    • 34.3 How Is Cancer Diagnosed 531
      • Staging Cancer 531
    • 34.4 Treatment Options 531
    • 34.5 Common Side Effects of Cancer and Treatment 532
    • 34.6 Palliative Care 534
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 535
    • Get Up and Think! 535
    • Reflect on This! 536
    • Let’s Review! 536
    • Multiple Choice Questions 536
    • References 537
  • Chapter 35: Care for the Client With a Positive HIV Status 538
    • 35.1 HIV Versus AIDS 539
    • 35.2 HIV Transmission 539
    • 35.3 Effects of HIV and AIDS 540
    • 35.4 Testing for HIV 541
    • 35.5 Preventing an HIV Infection 541
    • 35.6 Rights of Individuals With HIV/AIDS 543
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 543
    • Get Up and Think! 544
    • Reflect on This! 544
    • Let’s Review! 544
    • Multiple Choice Questions 544
    • References 545
  • Chapter 36: Care for the Client With Dementia 546
    • 36.1 Types of Dementia 547
    • 36.2 Risk Factors for Dementia 547
    • 36.3 Treatment of Dementia 547
    • 36.4 Diagnosing Dementia 548
      • Stages of Alzheimer’s Dementia 548
      • Common Signs, Symptoms, and Behaviors Associated With Dementia 549
    • 36.5 Managing the Behaviors Associated With Dementia 551
      • Meeting Unmet Needs of the Client 551
      • Therapeutic Interventions 552
      • Maintaining Function 553
      • Approach to Specific Behaviors 554
      • Improving Meal Time 554
      • Managing Pain 554
      • Sleep Disturbances 555
      • Toileting Interventions 556
      • Bathing Interventions 556
      • Wandering and Elopement Safety Measures 557
      • Discouraging Sexual Inappropriateness 558
    • 36.6 Remember the Families 558
    • 36.7 Caregiver Strain 559
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 560
    • Get Up and Think! 560
    • Reflect on This! 561
    • Let’s Review! 561
    • Multiple Choice Questions 561
    • References 562
  • Chapter 37: End-of-Life Care 563
    • Introduction 564
    • 37.1 Body System Changes 564
      • Respiratory Changes 564
      • Cardiovascular Changes 565
      • Nervous System and Sensory Organ Changes 565
      • Digestive Changes 565
      • Urinary Changes 566
    • 37.2 Special Care for the Dying Client 566
    • 37.3 Faith and Religion 567
    • 37.4 Care for the Family 568
    • 37.5 Post-Mortem Care 568
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 570
    • Get Up and Think! 570
    • Reflect on This! 571
    • Let’s Review! 571
    • Multiple Choice Questions 571
    • Skill 572
  • Chapter 38: Common Medications 574
    • 38.1 Scope of Practice 575
    • 38.2 Drug Names 575
    • 38.3 Actions of Medications 576
      • Allergic Drug Reactions 576
      • Drug Interactions 576
    • 38.4 Medication Classifications 577
      • Analgesics 578
      • Antibiotics 578
      • Bronchodilators 579
      • Antihypertensives 579
      • Anti-Anginals 580
      • Cardiotonics 580
      • Anticoagulants 580
      • Diuretics 581
      • Antidiabetics 581
      • Medications to Relieve Constipation 581
    • Summary of Learning Objectives 583
    • Get Up and Think! 583
    • Reflect on This! 583
    • Let’s Review! 584
    • Multiple Choice Questions 584
  • Common Medical Abbreviations and Directional Terminology 585
  • ISMP’s List of Error-Prone Abbreviations, Symbols, and Dose Designations 587
  • Glossary 591
  • Index 597